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Ezra Long
Ezra Long

Blue Print Reading For The Machine Trades Seventh Edition Unit 11 Answer Key

Carpentry, 7th Edition (2021) introduces students to every aspect of the carpentry trade. Students learn about construction materials, methods, hand and power tools, equipment, safety, reading blueprints, survey tools, foundations and slabs, frame construction, post and beam construction, and heavy concrete construction, and more. Up-to-date safety practices and related OSHA regulations are also covered.

Blue Print Reading For The Machine Trades Seventh Edition Unit 11 Answer Key

It is from this body of pupils that most of the wage-earners arerecruited. In the course of the survey several investigations weremade for the purpose of finding out what educational preparationworkers in various industries had received. One of the most extensiveof these was conducted in connection with the study of the printingindustry. Educationally the printing trades rank higher than mostother factory occupations, yet the average journeyman printerpossesses less than a complete elementary education. Composing-roomemployees, such as compositors, linotypers, stonemen, proof-readers,etc., undoubtedly stand at the head of the skilled trades as toeducational training, but it was found that only eight per cent werehigh school graduates. Six per cent had left school before reachingthe seventh grade, and 16 per cent before reaching the eighth grade.The other departments of the printing industry made a much lessfavorable showing.

At this point it becomes necessary to take cognizance of certainadministrative factors which have a marked bearing on the problem.They relate to the organization of classes in elementary schools andthe cost of teaching. In a school of 1,000 pupils there would be atleast five separate classes for the seventh and eighth grades. The 35boys who need industrial training are not all found in a single class,but are distributed more or less evenly throughout the fiveclassrooms, that is, there are approximately seven in each class. Adifferentiated course under these conditions is difficult if notimpossible. In a few of the Cleveland elementary schools thedepartmental system of teaching is in use. Under this plan somethingmight be done, were it not that the total number of pupils requiringinstruction relating specifically to the industrial trades is toosmall to justify the expense necessary for equipment, material, andspecial instruction required for such training. This is true asregards even an industrial course of the most general kind, whileprovision for particular trades is entirely out of the question. Themachinist's trade employs more men than any other occupation in thecity, yet the number of seventh and eighth grade boys in the averageelementary school who will probably become machinists does not exceedfive or six. Not over two boys are likely to enter employment in theprinting industry. The smaller trades, such as pattern making, cabinetmaking, molding, and blacksmithing are represented by not more thanone boy each.

In the junior high school, as in the elementary school, the greatestdifficulty in the way of trade training for specific occupations liesin the small number of pupils who can be expected, within the boundsof reasonable probability, to enter a single trade. Hand and machinecomposition, the largest of the printing trades, will serve as anexample. In a junior high school of 1,000 pupils, boys and girls, thenumber of boys who are likely to become compositors is about five. Butto teach this trade printing equipment occupying considerable space isnecessary, together with a teacher who has had some experience ortraining as a printer. The expense per pupil for equipment, for thespace it occupies, and for instruction renders special training forsuch small classes impracticable. All of the skilled occupations, withthe exception perhaps of the machinist's trade, are in the same case.An attempt to form separate classes for each of the eight largesttrades in the city would result in two classes of not over fivepupils, three classes of not over 10 pupils, and only one of over 13pupils. The following table shows the number of boys, in a school ofthis size, who are likely to enter each of these trades.

Fully three-fourths of the industrial group will later be employed inoccupations where most of the work is done with machines or machinetools. Even in the hand tool trades, such as carpentry, sheet metalwork, cabinet making, and blacksmithing, the use of machines isconstantly increasing. It would seem, therefore, that someacquaintance with different types of machines would be of considerablevalue to the pupils who may later enter industrial employment. Thenumber of boys who are likely to become machinists is large enough towarrant the installation of a small machine shop. Repairing,assembling, and taking apart machines should occupy an important placein the shop course. Most boys are intensely interested in getting atthe "insides" of a machine, and the processes of assembling, withtheir attendant problems of adjustment and co-ordination of mechanicalmovements, afford opportunities for the best kind of practicalinstruction. One of the great advantages of this type of shop worklies in the fact that it consumes little or no material and istherefore inexpensive; another is that a fairly extensive equipmentcan be easily obtained, as any machine, old or new, will serve thepurpose and may be used over and over again.

The enrollment in the school conducted by the New York CentralRailroad is about 140 boys, nearly all of whom are machinists'apprentices. They are divided into three classes, the members of eachclass attending the school four hours a week. About two-thirds of thetime is devoted to mechanical drawing and one-third to mathematics andshop practice. The instruction in these two latter subjects is basedon a series of graded mimeographed or blue print lesson sheets,containing a wide variety of shop problems, with a condensed andsimplified explanation of the mathematical principles involved. In themain the work is limited to the application of simple arithmetic toproblems of shop practice. No textbooks are used, but the booklets onmachine shop practice published by the International CorrespondenceSchools are studied in connection with the course.

Several of the building and printing trades' labor unions take anactive interest in the training of apprentices, and in at least twoinstances the unions maintain evening classes for teaching tradetheory. The Electrical Workers' Union, made up principally of insidewiremen, conducts apprentice classes taught by journeymen. TheInternational Typographical Union course for compositors andcompositors' apprentices is undoubtedly the best yet devised forgiving supplementary training in hand composition. It is taught byjourneymen in evening classes, under the supervision of the centraloffice of the Typographical Union Commission, to which all the workmust be submitted. In February, 1916, about 100 students wereenrolled, of whom approximately one-third were apprentices andtwo-thirds journeymen. The course consists of 46 lessons in English,lettering, design, color harmony, job composition, and imposition formachine and hand folding. The classes are held at the headquarters ofthe union. As the students' daily practice in the shop provides plentyof opportunity for the acquisition of manual skill, no apparatus orshop equipment is used in connection with the course.

For successful work in machine operating the class must be largeenough to warrant the purchase and operation of sufficient equipmentto give the pupils an opportunity for intensive practice. The only waythis condition can be secured is by concentrating in large groups thegirls who need such training. Little will be accomplished in trainingfor the sewing trades without specialization, and specialization insmall administrative units is impossible. The teaching and operatingcost in a school enrolling, say 200 girls, who want the same kind ofwork, can be brought within reasonable bounds. In a school where thetotal number who need specialized training does not exceed 10 or 15the cost is prohibitive.

Various changes are recommended in the present evening school classesfor machinists, molders, and pattern makers now given by the technicalhigh schools. It is claimed that the courses as now organized are notelastic enough to meet the varying needs of the journeymen, helpers,machine operators, and apprentices employed in these trades. The greatneed is for short unit courses in which the instruction is limited toa particular machine or a special branch of the trade. The long coursetends to discourage the student, especially when it embraces an amountof theory out of all proportion to his working needs.

1. Reduce retardation. The first step in improving the educationalpreparation of workers entering the building trades is to reduceretardation or slow progress in the elementary grades. At present itis approximately true of the men entering the building trades thatone-third drop out of school by the sixth grade, two-thirds by theseventh grade, and three-thirds by the eighth grade. Now according tolaw a boy cannot go to work until he is 16, and if he has made normalprogress he will have completed the eight grades of the elementarycourse before he has reached that age. In point of fact, many of theseboys do not make normal progress through the grades and hence theyreach the age of 15 before completing the elementary course. As aresult they fall out of school without having had those portions ofthe work in reading, drawing, mathematics, and elementary sciencewhich would be of most direct use to them in their future work.

Beginners in these occupations in which the majority of the women areemployed, start on folding or pasting, and as opportunity presents,gradually acquire practice in the higher grades of work, such asgathering and machine operating. There are some traces of theapprenticeship system in forwarding, ruling, and finishing, but thesetrades are so small that all of them combined require only a very fewnew workers each year.


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